Imdad A, Yakoob MY, Bhutta ZA. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries. BMC Public Health 2011; 11 (Suppl 3): S25.
- Approximately, 20% of children < 5 years of age in low and middle-income countries are underweight (weight for age Z score <-2) in year 2005 and about 32% of children < 5 years of age in these countries are stunted (height for age Z score <-2) (1)
- Stunting and wasting (weight for height Z score <-2) along with intrauterine growth restriction are responsible for about 2.1 million deaths worldwide in children <5 years of age (1).
- Incidence of stunting is highest between 6-24 months of age as children have high demand for nutrients, but limited quality and quantity of available foods, especially after exclusive breastfeeding (2, 3).
- Complementary feeding for infants is the timely introduction of safe and nutritional foods in addition to breastfeeding, introduced at about six months of age (and provided until 18-24 months of age) (4).
Provision of Complementary Foods (+ nutritional counseling) on Weight
- Increase in weight (weighed mean difference 0.34 SD, 95% CI 0.11-0.56)
- Actual increase in weight of 0.25kg (+0.18) - 11 studies (moderate quality of evidence)
Provision of Complementary Foods (+ nutritional counseling) on Height
- Increase in linear growth (weighed mean difference 0.26 SD, 95% CI 0.08-0.43)
- Actual increase in length of 0.54 cm (+0.38) - 11 studies (moderate quality of evidence)
Nutritional Counseling Alone on Weight
- Increase in weight (weighed mean difference 0.30 SD, 95% CI 0.05-0.54)
- Actual increase in weight of 0.30kg (+0.26) - 8 studies (moderate quality of evidence)
Nutritional Counseling Alone on Height
- Increase in linear growth (weighed mean difference 0.21 SD, 95% CI 0.01-0.41)
- Actual increase in length of 0.49kg (+0.50) - 7 studies (moderate quality of evidence)
- For children 6-24 months of age, provision of Complementary Foods (+ nutritional counseling) may result in an actual increase in weight of 0.25kg (+0.18) and length of 0.54 cm (+0.38) . With nutritional counseling alone, the increase in weight is 0.30kg (+0.26) and length is 0.49 cm (+0.50).
References from Imdad Paper Cited Here
- Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, Mathers C, Rivera J. Maternal and child undernutrition: global & regional exposures & health consequences. Lancet. 2008;371(9608):243–260.
- Shrimpton R, Victora CG, de Onis M, Lima RC, Blossner M, Clugston G. Worldwide timing of growth faltering: implications for nutritional interventions. Pediatrics. 2001;107(5):E75.
- Dewey KG, Adu-Afarwuah S. Systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness of complementary feeding interventions in developing countries. Matern Child Nutr. 2008;4(Suppl 1):24–85.
- WHO. Report of Informal Meeting to Review and Develop Indicators for Complementary Feeding. Washington, D.C.; 2002.